LZ cutting tools co. LTD

A cutter is a tool used in machining

Issuing time:2019-02-26 20:06

Cutting tool is the tool used in machining, also known as cutting tool. The broad cutting tool includes cutting tool, also includes abrasives. Most knives are machine tools, but there are also hand tools. The term "cutter" is generally understood to mean a metal cutting tool, since the cutters used in machinery are generally used to cut metal materials. The cutting tools used to cut wood are called woodworking tools.

The development of cutting tools plays an important role in the history of human progress. China as early as in the 20th century, as early as 28 BC, there have been brass cone and copper cone, drill, knife and other copper tools. In the late warring states period (3rd century BC), copper cutting tools were made by mastering the technology of carburizing. Drills and saws at that time had some similarities with modern flat drills and saws.

However, the rapid development of cutting tools came with the development of steam engines and other machines in the late 18th century. In 1783, Rene of France made the first milling cutters. In 1792, the British made taps and die. The invention of the twist drill was first documented in 1822, but was not produced as a commercial product until 1864.

At that time, the cutting tool was made of integral high carbon tool steel with a permissible cutting speed of about 5 m/min. In 1868, musher made tungsten alloy tool steel. In 1898, Taylor and the United States. White invented high-speed steel. In 1923, schleitel of Germany invented cemented carbide.

Because of the high price of high speed steel and hard alloy, the tool appears welding and mechanical clamping structure. In 1949-1950, the United States began to use indexable blades in turning tools, and soon they were used in milling cutters and other cutters. In 1938, German company degussa obtained the patent of ceramic cutting tool. In 1972, general electric produced polycrystalline synthetic diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride blades. These non-metallic tool materials allow tools to be cut at higher speeds.

In 1969, Sweden sandvik steel plant obtained by chemical vapor deposition method, production of titanium carbide coated carbide blade patent. In 1972, bangsha and lagulam of the United States developed the physical vapor deposition method to coat the surface of cemented carbide or high speed steel tool with titanium carbide or titanium nitride hard layer. The surface coating method combines the high strength and toughness of the base material with the high hardness and wear resistance of the surface layer, so that the composite material has better cutting performance.

Cutting tools can be divided into five categories according to the form of workpiece processing surface. Processing of various surface tools, including turning tools, planer, milling cutter, external surface broach and file; Hole processing tools, including drill, reamer, boring, reamer and internal surface broach; Thread processing tools, including taps, die, automatic thread cutting head, thread turning tool and thread milling cutter; Gear processing tools, including hob, gear shaver, gear shaver, bevel gear processing tools; Cutting tools, including insert circular saw blade, band saw, bow saw, cutting tool and saw blade milling cutter, etc. In addition, there are combination tools.

Cutting tools can be divided into three categories according to the cutting motion and the corresponding blade shape. General cutting tools, such as turning tools, planing tools, milling cutters (excluding shaped turning tools, shaped planing tools and shaped milling cutters), boring tools, drill bits, reamer drills, saws, etc.; Forming tool, the blade of which has the same or nearly the same shape as the section of the workpiece being processed, such as forming turning tool, forming planer, forming milling cutter, broach, taper reamer and various thread processing tools; Generating tool is used to process the tooth surface of gear or similar workpiece, such as hob, gear shaper, gear shaver, bevel gear shaper and bevel gear milling cutter disc.

The structure of various tools is composed of clamping part and working part. The clamping part and working part of the overall structure of the tool are done on the tool body; The working part of the tool (tooth or blade) is mounted on the tool body. The clamping part of the tool has two types: hole and handle. The tool with hole depends on the inner hole set on the spindle or spindle of the machine tool, with the help of the axial key or end key to transfer torque, such as cylindrical milling cutter, sleeve face milling cutter, etc..

The working part of the cutter is the part that produces and processes chips, including the blade, the structure that makes chips broken or rolled up, the space for chip removal or storage, the channel of cutting fluid and other structural elements. Some of the work of the tool is the cutting part, such as turning tool, planer, boring and milling cutter, etc. Some tools have cutting and calibration parts, such as drills, reamer, internal surface broaches, taps, etc. The function of the cutting part is to cut the chip with the blade, and the function of the calibration part is to polish the machined surface and guide the cutter.

The structure of the working part of the tool has three types: integral type, welding type and mechanical clamping type. The whole structure is to make cutting edge on the cutter body. Welding structure is to braze the blade to the steel body; There are two kinds of mechanical clamping structure, one is to clamp the blade on the body of the knife, the other is to braze the brazed head fixed on the body of the knife. Carbide tools are generally made of welded structure or mechanical clamped structure; Porcelain cutting tools are mechanically clamped.

In the choice of the Angle of the tool, need to consider the impact of a variety of factors, such as workpiece materials, tool materials, processing properties (rough, finishing), must be reasonable choice according to the specific situation. Tool Angle, usually is refers to the manufacturing and measuring the annotation Angle in actual work, because of the cutting tools for cutting and the installation position of the different change in the direction of movement, the Angle of the practical work and annotation Angle is different, but are usually very school manufacturing tool material must have a high temperature hardness and wear resistance, the necessary bending strength, impact toughness, and chemical inertness, good manufacturability, machining, forging and heat treatment, etc.), and out of shape not easily.

Generally when the material hardness is high, wear resistance is also high; When the bending strength is high, the impact toughness is also high. But the higher the material hardness, the lower its bending strength and impact toughness. High speed steel with high bending strength and impact toughness, and good machinability, modern is still the most widely used tool material, followed by hard alloy.

Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride is suitable for cutting high hardness hardened steel and hard cast iron. Polycrystalline diamond is suitable for cutting non-ferrous metals, alloys, plastics and glass reinforced plastics, etc. Carbon and alloy tool steels are now used only for files, dies and taps.

Carbide indexable blades are now CVD coated with a hard layer or composite hard layer of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, alumina. Physical vapor deposition methods, which are being developed, can be used not only for carbide cutters but also for high speed steel cutters such as drill bits, hobs, taps and milling cutters. As the barrier of chemical diffusion and heat conduction, the hard coating slows down the wear rate of the cutting tool, and the life of the coated blade is about 1 ~ 3 times longer than that of the uncoated one.

Due to the high temperature, high pressure, high speed, and the parts working in corrosive fluid medium, the application of more and more difficult to process materials, cutting level of automation and machining accuracy requirements are higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of cutting tools will be to develop and apply new cutting tool materials; Further development of tool vapor deposition coating technology, deposition of higher hardness coating on high toughness and high strength matrix, better solve the contradiction between hardness and strength of tool material; Further develop the structure of indexable cutter; Improve the manufacturing accuracy of the cutting tool, reduce the difference of product quality, and optimize the use of the cutting tool.

The structure of various tools is composed of clamping part and working part. The clamping part and working part of the overall structure of the tool are done on the tool body; The working part of the tool (tooth or blade) is mounted on the tool body. The clamping part of the tool has two types: hole and handle. The tool with hole depends on the inner hole set on the spindle or spindle of the machine tool, with the help of the axial key or end key to transfer torque, such as cylindrical milling cutter, sleeve face milling cutter, etc..

There are three kinds of tool with handle: rectangular handle, cylindrical handle and conical handle. Turning tool, planing tool and other general rectangular handle; Taper handle bears axial thrust by taper and transmits torque by means of friction. Cylindrical handle is generally suitable for small twist drill, vertical milling cutter and other tools, cutting with the help of the friction generated when clamping torque transfer. Many tool handles are made of low-alloy steel, while the working parts are welded to each other using high-speed steel.

The working part of the cutter is the part that produces and processes chips, including the blade, the structure that makes chips broken or rolled up, the space for chip removal or storage, the channel of cutting fluid and other structural elements. Some of the work of the tool is the cutting part, such as turning tool, planer, boring and milling cutter, etc. Some tools have cutting and calibration parts, such as drills, reamer, internal surface broaches, taps, etc. The function of the cutting part is to cut the chip with the blade, and the function of the calibration part is to polish the machined surface and guide the cutter.

The structure of the working part of the tool has three types: integral type, welding type and mechanical clamping type. The whole structure is to make cutting edge on the cutter body. Welding structure is to braze the blade to the steel body; There are two kinds of mechanical clamping structure, one is to clamp the blade on the body of the knife, the other is to braze the brazed head fixed on the body of the knife. Carbide tools are generally made of welded structure or mechanical clamped structure; Porcelain cutting tools are mechanically clamped.

In the choice of the Angle of the tool, need to consider the impact of a variety of factors, such as workpiece materials, tool materials, processing properties (rough, finishing), must be reasonable choice according to the specific situation. Tool Angle, usually is refers to the manufacturing and measuring the annotation Angle in actual work, because of the cutting tools for cutting and the installation position of the different change in the direction of movement, the Angle of the practical work and annotation Angle is different, but are usually very school manufacturing tool material must have a high temperature hardness and wear resistance, the necessary bending strength, impact toughness, and chemical inertness, good manufacturability, machining, forging and heat treatment, etc.), and out of shape not easily.

Generally when the material hardness is high, wear resistance is also high; When the bending strength is high, the impact toughness is also high. But the higher the material hardness, the lower its bending strength and impact toughness. High speed steel with high bending strength and impact toughness, and good machinability, modern is still the most widely used tool material, followed by hard alloy.

Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride is suitable for cutting high hardness hardened steel and hard cast iron. Polycrystalline diamond is suitable for cutting non-ferrous metals, alloys, plastics and glass reinforced plastics, etc. Carbon and alloy tool steels are now used only for files, dies and taps.

Carbide indexable blades are now CVD coated with a hard layer or composite hard layer of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, alumina. Physical vapor deposition methods, which are being developed, can be used not only for carbide cutters but also for high speed steel cutters such as drill bits, hobs, taps and milling cutters. As the barrier of chemical diffusion and heat conduction, the hard coating slows down the wear rate of the cutting tool, and the life of the coated blade is about 1 ~ 3 times longer than that of the uncoated one.

Due to the high temperature, high pressure, high speed, and the parts working in corrosive fluid medium, the application of more and more difficult to process materials, cutting level of automation and machining accuracy requirements are higher and higher. In order to adapt to this situation, the development direction of cutting tools will be to develop and apply new cutting tool materials; Further development of tool vapor deposition coating technology, deposition of higher hardness coating on high toughness and high strength matrix, better solve the contradiction between hardness and strength of tool material; Further develop the structure of indexable cutter; Improve the manufacturing accuracy of the cutting tool, reduce the difference of product quality, and optimize the use of the cutting tool.


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