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Concept and classification of cutting tools

Issuing time:2019-02-26 20:04

Cutting tool is the tool used in machining, also known as cutting tool. The broad cutting tool includes cutting tool, also includes abrasives.

Most knives are machine tools, but there are also hand tools. The term "cutter" is generally understood to mean a metal cutting tool, since the cutters used in machinery are generally used to cut metal materials. The cutting tools used to cut wood are called woodworking tools.

The development of cutting tools plays an important role in the history of human progress. China as early as in the 20th century, as early as 28 BC, there have been brass cone and copper cone, drill, knife and other copper tools. In the late warring states period (3rd century BC), copper cutting tools were made by mastering the technology of carburizing. Drills and saws at that time had some similarities with modern flat drills and saws.

However, the rapid development of cutting tools came with the development of steam engines and other machines in the late 18th century. In 1783, Rene of France made the first milling cutters. In 1792, the British made taps and die. The invention of the twist drill was first documented in 1822, but was not produced as a commercial product until 1864.

At that time, the cutting tool was made of integral high carbon tool steel with a permissible cutting speed of about 5 m/min. In 1868, musher made tungsten alloy tool steel. In 1898, Taylor and white of the United States invented high-speed steel. In 1923, schleitel of Germany invented cemented carbide.

When using alloy tool steel, the cutting speed of the tool increases to about 8 m/min, when using high speed steel, it increases more than twice, and when using hard alloy, it increases more than twice than using high speed steel.

Because of the high price of high speed steel and hard alloy, the tool appears welding and mechanical clamping structure. In 1949-1950, the United States began to use indexable blades in turning tools, and soon they were used in milling cutters and other cutters. In 1938, German company degussa obtained the patent of ceramic cutting tool. In 1972, general electric produced polycrystalline synthetic diamond and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride blades. These non-metallic tool materials allow tools to be cut at higher speeds.

In 1969, Sweden sandvik steel plant obtained by chemical vapor deposition method, production of titanium carbide coated carbide blade patent. In 1972, bangsha and lagulam of the United States developed the physical vapor deposition method to coat the surface of cemented carbide or high speed steel tool with titanium carbide or titanium nitride hard layer. The surface coating method combines the high strength and toughness of the base material with the high hardness and wear resistance of the surface layer, so that the composite material has better cutting performance.

Cutting tools can be divided into five categories according to the form of workpiece processing surface. Processing of various surface tools, including turning tools, planer, milling cutter, external surface broach and file; Hole processing tools, including drill, reamer, boring, reamer and internal surface broach; Thread processing tools, including taps, die, automatic thread cutting head, thread turning tool and thread milling cutter; Gear processing tools, including hob, gear shaver, gear shaver, bevel gear processing tools; Cutting tools, including insert circular saw blade, band saw, bow saw, cutting tool and saw blade milling cutter, etc. In addition, there are combination tools.

Cutting tools can be divided into three categories according to the cutting motion and the corresponding blade shape. General cutting tools, such as turning tools, planing tools, milling cutters (excluding shaped turning tools, shaped planing tools and shaped milling cutters), boring tools, drill bits, reamer drills, saws, etc.; Forming tool, the blade of which has the same or nearly the same shape as the section of the workpiece being processed, such as forming turning tool, forming planer, forming milling cutter, broach, taper reamer and various thread processing tools; Generating tool is used to process the tooth surface of gear or similar workpiece, such as hob, gear shaper, gear shaver, bevel gear shaper and bevel gear milling cutter disc.

The structure of various tools is composed of clamping part and working part.

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